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Filosofija::Vasaros sniegas

Filosofija

Tie, kurie klaidą laiko tiesa, o tiesą klaida, tie, kurie ganosi klaidingų minčių ganyklose, — niekada nepatirs tikrovės. Bet tie, kurie tiesą laiko tiesa, o klaidą klaida, tie, kurie ganosi teisingų minčių ganyklose, — patirs tikrovę.

Dhammapada

Budizmas skelbia, kad esti ne pastovi būtis, o nuolatinis visa ko tapsmas ir nyksmas. Pastovumo nebuvimas yra didžiausias blogis — tai „visą pasaulį ryjanti ugnis“.

Budos žodžiai apie tai pritrenkia savo beviltiškumu ir karčiu, sielvartingu tonu. Jis sakė: „sudėtinga anksčiau ar vėliau turi suirti, gimus — mirti. Reiškiniai nyksta vienas po kito, sunaikinama praeitis, dabartis ir ateitis, viskas praeina, viską valdo naikinimo dėsnis. Upės tekmė negrįžta, saulė keliauja nesustodama, žmogus pereina iš praeito gyvenimo į dabartinį, ir jokia jėga nesugrąžins jo į praeitį. Kam vytis vaiduoklišką laimę? Kas visomis jėgomis stengiasi pasiekti ją šiame gyvenime, beviltiškai tikisi, kad perskirtas vanduo toks liks amžinai. Mirtis viešpatauja pasaulyje, ir niekas — nei oras, nei jūros, nei olos — jokia visatos vieta nepaslėps mūsų; nei turtai, nei garbė neapgins mūsų nuo jos; visa, kas žemiška turi išsisklaidyti, išnykti. Mirčiai visi lygūs — vargšas ir turtuolis, kilmingas ir žemas; miršta ir seniai, ir jaunuoliai, ir vidutinio amžiaus žmonės, kūdikiai ir net gemalas motinos įsčiose. Mes tiesiu ir tikru keliu einame į mirtį. Žmogaus kūnas, keturių stichijų kūrinys, yra trapus indas, suskylantis į dalis po pirmo stipresnio smūgio. Visą gyvenimą jis būna aistrų, jaudulio ir kančių šaltiniu. Ateina senatvė, o su ja ligos — senis blaškosi agonojoje, kol mirtis nebaigia jo kančių. Gyvenimas — kaip prisirpęs vaisius, nukrisiantis po pirmojo vėjo gūsio; kiekvieną sekundę turime baimintis, kad jo tekmė nutrūks, kaip nutrūksta harmoningi arfos garsai, kai plyšta stygos po muzikanto ranka.“

Bet ir mirtis neišvaduoja žmogaus iš kančių pasaulio ir kaitos — jis vėl atgimsta naujam gyvenimui ir vėl miršta. Be galo rieda atgimimų „amžinai besisukantis ratas.“

Taigi, viskas yra kančia. „Gimimas yra kentėjimas, senatvė yra kentėjimas, liga yra kentėjimas, mirtis yra kentėjimas, gyvenimas su asmeniu, kurio nekenti, yra kentėjimas, išsiskyrimas su žmogumi, kurį myli, yra kentėjimas, negauti to, ko nori, yra kentėjimas; taigi penkios asmenybės savybių samplaikos yra kentėjimas“ (Dharmaguptakos Vinajapitaka). Tokia yra šventa kentėjimo Tiesa.

Kentėjimas apibūdinamas kaip viskas, kas susiję su materialia ir dvasine būtybe, vaizduojama doktrinoje, su visuma daiktų, su kuriais ta būtybė susijusi, ir kurie verčia ją kaskart iš naujo gimti. Iš tikrųjų pirmąjame Budos pasakyme yra nepaprastas pažadas, jis parodo beribę laimę. „Dauguma žmonių užmiršta, kad visi vieną dieną mirštame. Tie, kurie apie tai galvoja, nebemaištauja, nurimsta.“ Buda parodo sąmonės lygį, nepriklausomą nuo sąlygų.


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