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Istorija::Vasaros sniegas

Istorinės aplinkybės

VI a. pr. m. e. pasaulyje vyko galingas religinis sąjūdis. Atsirado įtakingos religijos: zoroastrizmas, judaizmas, budizmas, džainizmas, konfucianizmas, vedantinis induizmas, daosizmas.

Šis judėjimas, matyt, prasidėjo Persijoje. Jo pirminės priežastys turbūt tokios pat sudėtingos kaip ir Renesanso ar Reformacijos. Tais laikais religinės idėjos, ypač tokios revoliucingos turėjo sklisti be galo greitai. Religijos mokytojai dažnai keliaudavo, o žmonės turėjo laiko ir noro klausytis.

Religinio protesto jėga labiausiai buvo juntama Indijoje. Čia gyvenimą tvarkė brahmanai. Išplėtoję apeigų sistemą, didelį dėmesį skirdami studijoms, jie ėmė valdyti paprastus žmones. Tik jie galėjo aukoti, o jų aukos ir maginės maldos buvo tokios galingos, jog jų klausė ne tik žmonės, bet ir dievai. Apie 600 m. pr. m. e. šiaurės Indijoje viešpataujanti dvasininkų padėtis jau buvo įprastas dalykas. Deja, jų piniginių dovanų (dakšinų) reikalavimas, kišimasis į politiką, sukėlė didžiulį nepasitenkinimą ir protestą, ypač kšatrijų kastoje. Kai kas iš kšatrijų kastos tapo ateistais (čarvakais). Jų nuomone, dievo nėra, o aukojimai ir Vedų maldos yra nesąmonė. Vienintelis žmogui pažįstamas gėris yra laimė, taigi aukščiausias gėris — daryti tai, kas daro žmogų tikrai laimingą.

Be viso to, tuometinė Indija buvo nepaprasto dvasinio atvirumo. Būtent šiuo laiku induizmo gelmėse užsimezga džainizmo ir budizmo tikėjimai. Tuo pat metu apreiškimu laikytos Vedantos tradicinę tėkmę naujai pakreipė Upanišados. Visų šių elementų sintezė sąlygojo induizmo atsinaujinimo ir transformavimo procesą.

Jogos, Vedantos ir kitos sistemos savo doktrinomis bei praktiniais patarimais sukūrė tvirtą pagrindą atsirasti plačiam žmonių, ieškojusių išsigelbėjimo, išsilaisvinimo (mokši) ratui. Daugelis indų laukė naujų atsakymų į tokius klausimus: kodėl žmonės turi kentėti, ar negalima išvengti kančios? Jie ieškojo naujos, alternatyvios doktrinos, kuri galėtų būti priešpastatyta ezoterinei brahmanų išminčiai.

Ir džainizmas, ir budizmas tapo sistemomis, nepripažįstančiomis Vedų autoriteto. Mahavyra, džainizmo pradininkas, buvo Budos amžininkas ir minimas Budos šventuosiuose raštuose. Džainistų tikėjimas turi labai daug bendro su induistais ir budistais. Išganymo tikslas, pagal džainizmą, — išlaisvinti sielą ir padėti jai pakilti ten, kur būna tobulieji. Tam jie dorybingu gyvenimu ir askeze turi atsikratyti karmos.

Budizmas irgi, kaip reformistinis judėjimas, įsiterpė į ilgametę induizmo religinę tradiciją.


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