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Problema::Vasaros sniegas

Budizmo problema

Religijotyrai aktuali vadinamoji „budizmo problema“. Mat pats budizmas laužo įprastą religijos sampratą ir paplitusius apibrėžimus. Budos mokymas kartais aiškinamas kaip „ateistinis“, ir išties, ankstyvasis budizmas dievų neturėjo, o Budai hinajanos išpažinėjai taipogi nesimeldžia. Tuo tarpu, religijos apibrėžimuose dažnai vartojama dievo ar dievų sąvoka. Anot P. Tillich, „religijos sąvoką galima susiaurinti iki cultus deorum (“dievų garbinimo"), bet šitaip iš apibrėžimo išskirsime ikimitologines ir pomitologines religijos stadijas, taigi iš vienos pusės tas, kuriose dievų dar nebuvo, iš kitos — kuriose dievų jau nebuvo, atitinkamai šamanizmą kaip pirmosios stadijos atstovą, dzen-budizmą — kaip antrosios." Ortodoksinis budizmas, hinajana (iš dalies ir dzen — budizmas) neturi dievo sąvokos, joms „nereikalingi“ ir dievai — tačiau hinajana be jokios abejonės yra religija. Kai kurie autoriai suprasdami, kad budizmui jų apibūdinimai netinka bando ir tai neigti. Pavyzdžiui Anwanderis postulavo, esą ankstyvasis budizmas tebandė įveikti vien kančios problemą, tad jis tebuvo mistinė filosofija, o ne religija. Tuo tarpu religija tapo tik vėlyvesnė budizmo forma. Dar kiti žūt būt bandė įsprausti budizmą į jau nustatytus rėmus. Windengrenas sako, kad šiuo atveju, kalbėjimas apie likimą kontroliuojančią galią ar galias apima ir budistinę dharmą, kuri kaip tik ir „lemia likimą“.

O ką mano patys budistai? Lama Ole Nydahl`as, Tibeto budizmo atstovas, teigia, kad tarp religijos ir budizmo yra esminis skirtumas, nes religija turėtų iš naujo mus atvesti prie kažko tobulo. Tačiau budizme nėra nieko, su kuo galima būtų vėl susijungti, nėra rojaus, iš kurio kadaise buvome išmesti. Viskas, ką kalba Buda yra logiška, ir tai galima patirti.

Jei jau budizmo problemą taip sunku išspręsti mokslininkams, tai ką apie šią religiją galvoja eiliniai žmonės? Ole Nydahl`as teigia, kad bet kokia sistema pasirodo per maža budizmui.

Dažnai manoma, kad budizmas — filosofija. Iš vienos pusės tai tiesa. Dvasinis skaidrumas yra natūrali budistinio vystymosi pasekmė. Bet filosofija veikia sąvokų ir vaizdinių lygmenyje, o Budos mokslas dirba su mumis kaip su visuma. Dėl to nuolat keičiamės, kadangi duodamas raktas nuo to, kas kasdien vyksta mūsų viduje ir visur aplink.

Bet ir čia slypi pavojus. Atkreipę dėmesį į vidinio poveikio, vystymosi idėją, kai kurie teigia, kad budizmas yra psichologija. Bet budizmas įžengia tik tada, kai žmonės pasiekia tam tikrą vidinį stabilumą ir erdvę mato kaip turtą, o ne kaip atskyrimą. Kada išgyvenantis tai, kas išgyvenama, ir pats išgyvenimo procesas nebejaučiami kaip besiskiriantys tarpusavyje, pirmiausiai ateina išlaisvinimas, o po to prašvitimas. Nors psichologija mus keičia, iš tikrųjų ji veda į tašką, kuriame budizmas prasideda.

Tačiau Dalai Lama teigia, kad budizmas — tai ir religija, ir praktika, ir filosofija sykiu. Jame praktikuojamos įvairios meditacijos formos. O analitinė meditacija — kaip ir visos kitos — visuomet susijusi su tam tikra išmintimi. Tai taip pat ir religija, kadangi ši praktika ir ši filosofija susieja žmones, nušviečia jų protą, suteikia prieglobstį, padeda jiems tapti budomis, nubudusiomis būtybėmis.

Ole Nydahl`as mano, kad budizmą geriausiai apibūdina žodis dharma. Žinoti sąryšius, kurie jungia reiškinius, yra raktas į kiekvieno laimę. Budizmas yra mokymas, o pats Buda — mokytojas, pavyzdys, bičiulis.


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